Wednesday, September 9, 2009

Drugs the life's destroyer

Drug addiction is one of the social issues or considered as one of the social problems that the world is facing nowadays. I really don't know what satisfaction a drug user can acquire by using these drugs. The only reason that I know is that other people used drugs because they're not capable of handling their problems. They used drugs to forget even for a while the problems that they've been facing in their lives. The point is that did they benefit by using these drugs? Maybe for a while they can benefit but they can’t resolve their problems by using drugs.

One of the arising issues nowadays is the requirement of drug testing prior to the admission to a university. Should drug testing be required?

Well, my answer is no. My reason for this is so simple, you can't eradicate drug users by means of just only drug testing .

Do only college students use drugs? No! right. People think that only adults like college student can use drugs. In fact, even a small kid can use them. Yes! nowadays even small kids are drug users.

What about them? If this drug testing is only implemented for college student. Are they also required to undergo drug testing just for them to be qualified to study in grade school/high school. It means that if they get a positive result in drug testing then they will not be allowed to study.

Let’s open our minds that nowadays nothing is impossible, age limit is no longer an issue. For as long as there are drug manufacturers and there are drug patronizers, drug will continue in every generation. Drugs is a life destroyer, authorities should seek alternative ways to eradicate these drugs.

Thursday, September 3, 2009

Times up!

1. Living

2. Cutting

3. Vivisection

4. True

5. True

Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Guide Questions, Vivisection

_______1. The latin word vivi in vivisetion means?

_______2. The latin word section in vivisection means?

_______3 This word literally means cutting or incising live tissues.?

_______4.TRUE or FALSE People for the ethical treatment of animals (PETA) are advocates who fight for animal rights?

_______5.TRUE or FALSE Not only animals can be used for vivisection but even humans?


Discuss the pros and cons of vivisection in the clinical laboratory.

Monday, August 24, 2009


Vivisection from the latin word vivi, living and section, cutting. Literally vivisection means cutting or incising living tissues. It could also relate to any surgical procedure, including human operation or to any procedure including the used of animals for experimental purposes for discovering new inventions to the health field like drugs which somehow against or violation to law—to the animal rights.

Though animals are not created in god’s own image and likeness like us they still have the dignity and rights that we need to respect. Injecting drugs, giving them chemicals, killing them or doing such thing that make them harm is a against the law and a way of disrespect on their part.

Many animal lives are being wasted in doing such experimentation which in a way the historical value of this animal research with regards to the benefit that it could give to the progress of human health remains in question. Such alternatives can be done in order to save the lives of these animals like proper access to health which in a way saving this animals from cruelty.

Photo by: smiteme

Friday, July 17, 2009

The Parathormone

Come don't hesitate to read my poem
I am really proud I created it on my own
Oh! yeah I did it while lying in our sofa's soft foam
Which i named, the parathormone

Do your bones easily fracture and deforms?
It can all account to low secretion of parathormone
A hormone that is secreted by the four tiny glands
Discoverer named it the parathyroid glands

This hormone is responsible for maintaining the blood calcium concentration
That is responsible for muscle and nerve contraction
If it exceeds in the concentration
Our body will get rid of it through urine excretion.

Hyperparathyroidism is the disease in high concentration,
While hypoparathyroidism if there's low concentration.
RIA is the name for its determination.
Using antigen-antibody in its detection

So don't wait for hospitalization
That might result to intravenous injection.
The only key to good health is prevention.
Not by any hospital accommodation.

So do care for your health
Because I'll tell you it is really a wealth
I hope somehow I made you happy
By reading my poem I'm telling you I'm really lucky.

Tuesday, June 30, 2009


1. Parathormone

2. Hyperparathyroidism

3. Thyroid gland

4. Calcitonin

5. Tetanus

6-7 Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone

8. Hyperparathyroidism

9. Thyroid gland

10. Yes!


1 The disease or condition that can be associated with the patient's symptoms is hypoparathyroidism, which is responsible for the regulation of the blood calcium level.

2. The most likely cause for the decrease of the patient blood calcium level is due to the low concentration of his PTH.

Parathormone Quiz


1. What is the other term for parathyroid hormone?
2. Abnormally high concentrations of PTH result to what condition?
3 Where is the parathyroid gland embedded?
4. This is a hormone released by the thyroid gland that has a similar action with PTH?
5 Other term use for muscle cramps?
6-7What are the hormones that contribute to the regulation of blood calcium levels?
8. This condition results from a tumor of the parathyroid gland?
9. Where is the parathyroid hormone secreted?
10. Are deformed and easily broken down bones be accounted to the decrease in PTH secretion ?

A 32 year-old male patient diagnosed to have cyst in the thyroid glands. His doctor scheduled him for a surgical removal of his cyst to prevent the multiplication. But during the surgical operation, the doctor accidentally removed his parathyroid glands. After the operation the patient experience muscle cramps/tetanus and irregularity in his breathing that make him decided to again seek for medical assistance. The doctor requested him to undergone some laboratory test. The results are the following;

Hematological test:
Hemoglobin- 13g/dL (reference range 12-18g/dL)
Hematocrit- 43% ( reference range 40-50%)
WBC count- 5,000/cumm (reference range 6,000-11,000/cumm)
Blood Chemistry test:
Calcium-5mg/dL (reference range 8.5 to 10.2 mg/dL)


1. What condition or disease can be associated with the patient symptoms?
2. What is th most likely cause for the decrease in his blood calcium level?

Monday, June 15, 2009

Parathyroid Hormone

Are you experiencing muscle cramps? Or does your bones easily deformed and fractured? All of these can happen if you have an abnormal parathyroid hormone concentration.
Parathyroid hormone or parathormone is a hormone that is primarily secreted by the parathyroid gland which is responsible for the regulation of the blood calcium levels in our body. Parathyroid hormone is much important than calcitonin ( hormone released by the thyroid gland cells, same action as to PTH ) in regulating blood calcium levels.
Primary action of Parathyroid Hormone;
  • Binds to a membrane bound cell receptors and increases the calcium ions from the intestine thereby causing an increase in active Vit D formation.
  • Increases bone tissue breakdown to release calcium ions into the circulatory system and decreases the rate at which the calcium ions are excreted in the urine.
  • Acts on its target tissue to raise blood calcium ion level to a normal range.

Clinical Significance


  • Abnormally high concentration of the PTH secretion.
  • Result from a tumor of the parathyroid gland
  • Excess calcium ions can lead to kidney stone because calcium ions will be deposited in the soft tissues of the body.
  • Elevated PTH concentration in the blood can increase bone breakdown thereby resulting in increase concentration of the blood calcium levels leading to have soft, deformed and easily fractured bones. It can also lead to fatigue and muscle weakness due to the less excitation of the nerves and muscles.

  • Abnormally low concentration of the PTH secretion.
  • Result from an injury or surgical removal of the thyroid and parathyroid gland
  • Low PTH concentration of blood can result to bone breakdown and reduced Vit D formation. As a result, blood calcium ion levels decrease tend the nerves and muscles to become excitable thereby producing spontaneous action potential that can result to muscle cramps or tetanus that can affect the respiratory muscles thereby stopping the breathing and can result to death.

Method of determination:

Radioimmunoassay represents the primary means of quantitating parathyroid hormone.


Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology by Rod R. Seeley, Trent D. Stephens, Philip Tate.